martes, 18 de abril de 2017

Grammar in Context: THE PASSIVE VOICE (BBC)

Sophie is in China for work and phones home to tell Ollie about her trip.

Instructions

As you watch the video, look at the examples of passive forms. They are in red in the subtitles. Then read the conversation below to learn more. Finally, do the grammar exercises to check you understand, and can use, passive forms correctly.
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We use the passive, rather than the active, to show that we are more interested in a certain part of the sentence. The passive is usually formed by the verb to be + past participle.
Can you give me some examples of the active and passive?
Yes, of course. Here’s a passive sentence:
My room is being cleaned.
'My room' is the main focus of the sentence. The active form would be 'The cleaners are cleaning my room'. This sounds strange because it is obvious that, if you are in a hotel, cleaners would clean your room. So we sometimes use the passive to avoid stating the obvious.
OK, that makes sense. Are there any other uses?
We also use the passive when we don’t know who did something, or when it isn’t important.
It’s the biggest outdoor elevator in the world, so I’ve been informed.
It doesn’t matter who told me.
I think loads of films have been made there.
The important thing is the films, not the film-makers.
Can you use a passive and also say who did the action?
Yes.
Avatar was made by James Cameron.
Is the passive formal?
No, not necessarily. It can be formal or neutral or informal.
I hope to find everything clean and tidy … you’ve been warned!
But we often avoid the passive in very informal spoken language, for example, by using they.
They based the scenery in Avatar on the landscape here.
We don’t know exactly who they are, but we can guess that it’s the people who made the film.
I think I’ve heard people use you a lot too when they don’t refer to anyone in particular.
Yes, very good! That’s another way of sounding more informal. You is a bit different; it means 'people in general'.
Parcels can be collected from the Post Office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. (more formal)
You can collect parcels between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. (less formal)
One last question, what about the passive with get? Is that informal too?
Yes, when we’re speaking informally we also often use get rather than the verb be.
He was sacked from his job. = He got sacked from his job.
But be careful, not all verbs can be used in the passive with get - only verbs for talking about an action or a change.
She was knocked off her bike by a bus. = She got knocked off her bike by a bus.
Charlie Chaplin was loved by millions. Charlie Chaplin got loved by millions.
Phew, OK. I think my brain has been fried by all this!
Ah, OK, we’ll stop. But look - you’re using the passive correctly already!

martes, 28 de marzo de 2017

What is Carbon Footprint?

You learn something every day if you pay attention. ~Ray LeBlond

some, any, no, compound forms




SOME, ANY, NO AND COMPOUNDS
 
SOME
 
- IN AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES:
    I’m going to buy some clothes.
    There’s some ice in the fridge.
    We did some exercises.
 
- Some + plural countable nouns
     I need some new shoes.
 
- Some + uncountable nouns
     I need some money.
 
- IN QUESTIONS, when a Yes/No answer is expected.
     Can I have some coffee?
     Would you like some more meat?
 
 ANY
 
- IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES (used with not) and QUESTIONS (used without not):
 
     I’m not going to buy any clothes.
     There isn’t any orange juice in the fridge.
     Has he got any friends?
 
- IN AFFIRMATIVE sentences with the meaning of every:
 
    You can take any pen.
    Any of them is useful.
 
NO
 
It is used instead of ANY, and the verb always appears in the affirmative form. We use no especially after have (got) and there is / are:
 
No = not + any or not + a
 
    There are no cars in the parking lot.
 
    We’ve got no coffee.
 
    It’s a nice house, but there’s no garden.
 
 
COMPOUNDS
 
 
PEOPLE
Somebody
Someone
Anybody
Anyone
Nobody
No one
THINGS
Something
Anything
Nothing
PLACES
Somewhere
Anywhere
Nowhere
 
 
Use somebody, something, someone, etc. when you don’t say exactly who, what or where.
     Somebody broke the window.
     I went somewhere nice at the weekend.
     She has something in her mouth.
 
 
Use anything, anybody, anywhere, etc. in questions or with a (-) verb.
    I didn’t do anything last night
                     NOT      
           I didn’t do nothing. (x)
 
 
Use nothing, nobody, nowhere, etc. in short negative answers or in a sentence (with an affirmative verb).
 
    Who’s in the bathroom?
    Nobody. Nobody is in the bathroom.
                           NOT      
                    Anybody is in the bathroom. (x)
 
 You can use nobody/ no one/ nothing at the beginning of a sentence or alone (to answer a question)
 
 
SOME, ANY, NO & EVERY COMPOUNDS
 
 
usage
some
1. Afirmative sentences
2. Interrogative sentences when they mean
    invitation or when an affirmative answer
    is expected
someone
somebody
something
somewhere
any
1. Interrogative sentences
2. Negative sentences (to have a negative
    meaning “any” has to follow “not”)
3. Affirmative sentences meaning “every”
anyone
anybody
anything
anywhere
no

1. Affirmative or interrogative sentences,
    to which they confer a negative meaning.
2. Mainly used as subjects.
no one
nobody
nothing
none
nowhere
every
 
 
Affirmative, negative or interrogative sentences
everyone
everybody
everything
everywhere
 

martes, 21 de marzo de 2017

St Patrick’s Day

St Patrick’s Day is now celebrated throughout the world, not just in Ireland, with the largest parade taking place in New York City.

St. Patrick's Day around the world





MOLLY MALONE








On March 17th, people all over the world will be celebrating St Patrick's Day. I'm not sure Irish people living in Ireland will appreciate their national day being described as an 'American holiday', but apart from that, this video gives a good overview of everybody's favourite green festival. For more St Patrick's Day resources, see below.